Properties of silicon and silicon wafers 
Silicon material properties  Silicon wafer properties 
1. Crystal properties  1. Properties 
2. Band structure properties  2. Typical Sizes of Semiconductor Wafers 
3. Thermal properties  3. Wafer Flats 
4. Electrical properties  4. Cleaving 
5. Silicon etching  
5. Mechanical properties 
PROPERTY 
VALUE 
UNITS 
Structure 
Cubic 

Space Group 
Fd3m 

Atomic weight 
28.0855 

Lattice spacing (a_{0} ) at 300K 
0.54311 
nm 
Density at 300K 
2.3290 
g/cm^{3} 
Nearest Neighbour Distance at 300K  0.235  nm 
Number of atoms in 1 cm^{3} 
4.995 · 10^{22} 

Isotopes 
28 (92.23%) 29 ( 4.67%) 30 ( 3.10%) 

Electron Shells 
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{2} 

Common Ions  Si ^{4 +}, Si ^{4 }  
Critical Pressure  1450  atm 
Critical Temperature  4920  °C 
PROPERTY 
VALUE 
UNITS 
Dielectric Constant at 300 K 
11.9 

Effective density of states 
2.8x10^{19} 
cm^{3} 
Effective density of states (valence, N_{v }T=300 K ) 
1.04x10^{19} 
cm^{3} 
Electron affinity 
133.6 
kJ / mol 
Energy Gap E_{g} at 300 K (Minimum Indirect Energy Gap at 300 K) 
1.12 
eV 
Energy Gap E_{g} at ca. 0 K (Minimum Indirect Energy Gap at 0K) 
1.17 (at 0 K) 
eV 
Minimum Direct Energy Gap at 300 K 
3.4 
eV 
Energy separation (E_{ΓL}) 
4.2 
eV 
Intrinsic Debye length 
24 
um 
Intrinsic carrier concentration 
1·10^{10} 
cm^{3} 
Intrinsic resistivity 
3.2·10^{5} 
Ω·cm 
Auger recombination coefficient C_{n} 
1.1·10^{30} 
cm^{6} / s 
Auger recombination coefficient C_{p} 
3·10^{31} 
cm^{6} / s 
Temperature dependence of the energy gap:
E_{g} = 1.17  4.73·10^{4}·T^{2}/(T+636) (eV)
where: T is temperature in degrees K.
PROPERTY 
VALUE 
UNITS 
Melting point 
1414 1687 
°C K 
Boiling point 
2628 
K 
Specific heat 
0.7 
J / (g x °C) 
Thermal conductivity [300K] 
148 
W / (m x K) 
Thermal diffusivity 
0.8 
cm^{2}/s 
Thermal expansion, linear 
2.6·10^{6} 
°C ^{1} 
Debye temperature 
640 
K 
Temperature dependence of band gap  2.3e4  eV/K 
Heat
of: fusion / vaporization / atomization 
39.6 / 383.3 / 452 
kJ / mol 
PROPERTY 
VALUE 
UNITS 
Breakdown field 
≈ 3·10^{5} 
V/cm 
Index of refraction 
3.42 

Mobility electrons 
≈ 1400 
cm^{2} / (V x s) 
Mobility holes 
≈ 450 
cm^{2} / (V x s) 
Diffusion coefficient electrons 
≈ 36 
cm^{2}/s 
Diffusion coefficient holes 
≈ 12 
cm^{2}/s 
Electron thermal velocity 
2.3·10^{5} 
m/s 
Electronegativity  1.8  Pauling`s 
Hole thermal velocity 
1.65·10^{5} 
m/s 
Optical phonon energy 
0.063 
eV 
Density of surface atoms  (100)
6.78
(110) 9.59 (111) 7.83 
10^{14}/cm^{2}
10^{14}/cm^{2} 10^{14}/cm^{2} 
Work function (intrinsic)  4.15  eV 
Ionization Energies for Various Dopants 
Donors Sb 0.039 P 0.045 As 0.054 Acceptors
Al 0.067 Ga 0.072 In 0.16 
eV eV eV
eV eV eV eV 